Critical Cases - Hyperkalemia Emergency!

A 56 year old male presents to the ED with confusion and abdominal pain. You notice a fistula in his upper extremity. A tech hands you his triage ECG and you scrutinize it for the tell-tale signs of a common, life-threatening diagnosis in hemodialysis patients, while wondering what the initial steps in management are....

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Back to Basics: Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

Everyone has seen the long list of causes of an anion gap metabolic acidosis. Why review it again? Because one day, whether in real life (or on your board exams...), thinking through this list will help make a tricky diagnosis. It is 'back to basics,' after all! 

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Advanced Practice: Thoracic Central Venous Obstruction!

A 25 yo male with a hx of ESRD due to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) presents to the ED with complaints of swelling to his LUE, face, and neck progressive over 5 days. He was seen at another ED 2 days prior and had an ultrasound of his LUE fistula as well as a duplex of his LUE which were unremarkable.  A CT scan of the chest was ordered, revealing bilateral occluded brachiocephalic veins, which were treated in the interventional radiology suite with balloon venoplasty with resultant resolution of edema.

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